History of ChittoorChittoor is situated on the bank of Ponnai River is a part of the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India. The town is known for temples in and near it. The blend of Andhra and Tamil cultures can be found in Chittoor.
The name Chittoor is a Tamil word and it literally means “small town”. It has a Tamil name as it was a part of Tamil constituency of “Thondai Nadu”.
Historical evidences of the existence of Chittoor district have been found in the Palaeolithic tools in Tirupathi, Sitarampeta, Ellampalle, Mekalavandlapalle, the Mesolithic tools in Chinthaparthi, Moratavandlapalle, Aruvandlapalle, Tirupathi and Neolithic tools in Bangarupalem.
Komandu Kurumba Prabhu was the first ruler who divided the area in 24 parts. He built forts in every part. Kurumba was defeated by the Cholas in 8th and 9th centuries. The Kurumba King was left with only the eastern part of the region. The other dynasties that ruled the region were Ballal in 11th century, Vijaynagar in 13th century, Dravidian Kingdom, etc.
In later years the region was ruled by Bahmani rulers. On 23rd January 1565 Mughal rulers conquered Vijaynagar kingdom. An invitation to the superintendent of the East India Company at Armegaum was sent by the ruler of Chittoor for settlement. The first Indian region under British was granted by the ruler of Chittoor in 1640.
During 1713 Marathas and Nizams struggled for the area. A treaty was signed between Nizams and British for offering aid in return of land and governance in 1804. The rebellions were tackled in harsh manner. The region finally was under British Military in 1884 and they ruled Chittoor until independence in 1947.
Political History of ChittoorThe Chittoor region has a strong political history which starts in 4th century BC with the Mauryas. The parts of the Chittoor district were ruled by different dynasties like the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Cholas,Marathas, Royal of Vijayanagara, Qutub Shahis, Rashtrakutas, Mughals, Hyder Ali and Tipu of Mysore, and the British.
The other dynasties which were weak and ruled this place were the Yadavas, Renande Cholas, Matlis, Banas, Andiyaman, Vaidumbas, Uttama Chola Ganga, Nolambas, Western Gangas, Telugu Cholas, Siyaganga rulers, Nawabs of Kadapa and Arcot. Other than these dynasties the place was also ruled by the Zamindars of Karvetinagar, Srikalahasthi, Punganur and Kangundhi.
Historical Facts of Chittoor
4th Century BC: Mauryas ruled the region
Before 8th Century: The region was ruled by Kurumba, Pallava Dynasty. Komandu Kurumba Prabhu was the first king of Pallava Dynasty. The region was divided in 24 divisions or kottams. Fort was built in every region.
8th and 9th Century: Cholas defeated the Kurumbas leaving the eastern part of Telangana. The eastern part was ruled by Yadava dynasty which belonged to Kurumbas. Narayanavanam was the capital of the region. Important parts of the region were Tirupati and Chandragiri.
11th Century: Ballal Dynasty ruled over the region currently is a part of Tamil Nadu, Carnatic, Malabar, and Telangana.
13th Century: Bukkaraya and Hariharaya defeated the Ballal Dynasty with the help of Mahdava Vidyaranya Swamy (later Prime minister).
14th Century: Region was ruled by Raja Narsingaraya expanding the rule till Carnatic. Krishnadevaraya Son of Raja Narsingaraya extended the region to Tamil area. Mughal refugees founded the Bhamani Kingdom. Bhamani kingdom was split into five different kingdoms after the death of Hasan Gangu. The five Bhamani chief destroyed the Vijaynagar Dynasty.
23rd Jan 1565: Eventful battle took place at Tallikota. The kingdom was then under control of the royal family. The government officers ruled different dynasties as Zamindars or Poligars. The Vijaynagara kingdom was taken over by the relative of the deceased king. An invitation was sent to East India Company at Armegaum which was accepted by East India Company.
1640: The land was given to East India Company. It was the first time entry of British on Indian land. A fort was built by them as St. George Fort.
17th Century: Malloji Bhonsle purchased property at Pune, etc from Sultan of Ahmadnagar. Shahji his son offered service to Sultan of Bijapur in return of which he was granted the property today known as Bangalore.
1713: The Chittoor region became the reason of conflict between Marathas and Nizams. British defeated the French to establish empowerment in India. Hussain Ali replaced the emperor.
1753-1759: Fights related to revenue took place. Later Marathas marched to Tirupati and took over Pagoda, hoping to beg the income of temple during the festival. Later Narayan Shastry re-occupied Pagoda.
1804: Order of British Battalion was enforced in Chittoor. A commission group was appointed for settlement and signing of agreement.
1911: Formation of Chittoor district
1st April 2011: Completed 100 years of existence.